Projective Testing in Morocco
TAT Responses of Male High School Students in Casablanca

from Ouzzi, A. (1986). The Psychology of Adolescence: A field study of the psycho-sociological attitudes of the Moroccan adolescent.[1]

This 1986 book on adolescence, published in Rabat, is from a doctoral thesis by Professsor Ahmed Ouzzi, who collected projective test and sentence completion data from senior high school students preparing for the baccalaureate examination in Casablanca, all of them apparently males [cf. Carlson, Gilligan].

Description of the sample (p. 78, paraphrased): 200 male students in various branches (science, letters, technical) of last two years of public secondary schools in Casablanca, aged 17-20; tested between January and April and June and August, 1975. French "mission" and other private schools were excluded since their Ss tend to be foreign or of very high economic level. Younger Ss excluded because their thinking hasn't yet matured, 17-20 is the age when attitudes take clear form.

After summarizing the Western literature on adolescence as an essential life stage, typically characterized by personal and social stress, Prof. Ouzzi offers the following [loosely translated] description of adolescence in Morocco:

It should be noticed that there is no word in the colloquial Arabic spoken by most Moroccans for "adolescence." Such a stage is not named. We find words such as baligh, indicating legal maturity [rushd]; and there are also the words l-`azri and l-`azria, which mean single or virgin male or female. The word l-`atq is also used, indicating the girl who is not married. The word z-zufri, which is a distortion of the French word ouvrier, indicates the young unmarried man; and it is used in a derogatory way to indicate the adolescent. In addition to the previous words we find others which indicate an awareness on the part of adults of the physical changes which take place in adolescence, except that these words are used only to express scorn on the part of parents towards their children:

Besides these descriptions we find other words used to refer to boys and girls at this stage of life, but these are used only to describe young people when they behave badly or when they have an argument with adults. We conclude from the above that the adults in Moroccan society generally perceive the physical changes that take place during the growth of children; but they don't perceive that there is a particular stage which is neither a stage of childhood nor of maturity and which has its own physical, psychological and mental [l-`aqliya] characteristics. And the words mentioned are used when the adult wants to criticize the adolescent.

The non-existence of a special word indicating the particularity of the period of adolescence does not mean that adults in Moroccan society are unaware of the stages of growth to full maturity; especially when we speak of city dwellers, where the period of getting ready to fully integrate into the society and participate in the life of adults is longer. The fact that Moroccan society does not acknowledge adolescence as a period of distinct psychological, physical and emotional development is not strange considering that scientific study of adolescence didn't begin in the more developed countries until the beginning of this century. Therefore, interest in adolescence is a relatively recent phenomenon; and the majority of Moroccans until recently were rural dwellers, among whom it is difficult to distinguish adolescence as a period separate from childhood and maturity, because rural children take responsibility while they are still in middle childhood [aTTufula al-mutawassiTa]. They integrate into the life of adults at an early age: both boys and girls do work such as herding and harvesting, etc.; and children take responsibilities at an early age which doesn't allow them time for childhood. They are like "children without childhood" (p. 32, probably quoting Pascon & Bentahar).

B. Presenting the Results of the Thematic Apperception Test

Instructions [translated from the standard Murray et al.]. Ten cards [#s 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 12, 13, 18], 50 minutes.

Description of the pictures

1. Boy with violin, one eye nearly closed and one half-closed.

2. Rural scene: foreground left young girl with books, lady on right leaning against tree, "half naked" man in distance, horse in distance with head and shape of foot unclear, background houses and hills.

3. Boy sitting on his knees [or young child], head leaning on right arm which is stretched out on bed, face not visible. To left of bed on ground is something not clearly distinguishable, but which may be guessed to be a pistol.

4. Man and woman, she looking at him and he looking away. Her arms are around him, her hand on his shoulder. Window in background.

6. Old lady with grey hair standing in a room next to a window and looking through it. Her eyes are fixed forward on something far. Behind her stands a younger man.

7. An old man with white hair looking at a younger person and focussing his eyes on something far away.

8. To the right and the front of the picture is a young man looking forward. On the left is a rifle whose muzzle we can see clearly. Behind the rifle is a man stretched with a naked chest. Two men are standing next to the reclining man. One of them is holding a sharp instrument in his hand as if he were performing a surgical operation. As for the other man, he is watching what his colleague is doing.

12. A man lying back in an armchair with his eyes closed. Another man is sitting next to the armchair with his knee against the edge of the chair. He is leaning a little forward toward the sleeping man, and his right hand is stretched lightly in a way that it nearly touches his face.

13. In the front of the picture is a bed or stretcher, and a young woman on it. Her chest is uncovered, and her breasts are visible. Her right arm is hanging down at the side, and she looks as if whe were dead. Next to her stands a man looking down. His left arm is hanging at his side, and he is covering his face with his right hand. In the right corner of the picture is a table, and there are two books on it. Behind the table is a chair.

18. In the front of the picture is a man wearing a vest and an overcoat, both open. His head is turned to the left in a way that shows his face in profile. His eyes are averted, and we notice three hands: one on his right arm and the second on his right shoulder and the third on his left arm.

The Stories. Verbatim written stories are apparently given for 20 cases, along with age, family economic level, parental status, and birth order data for each.[2] The first eight cases are translated here.

Case 1: 18, parents alive, oldest of five children, bac student in science (pp. 129-131).

1. A child. Next to him is a violin. He is looking thoughtfully at it, and he wants to know about it but he can't because of his circumstances. Perhaps he doesn't know how to play, or someone very close to him has died and this instrument reminds him of that person. He will no doubt become a skillful player in the future, since he is looking thoughtfully at this instrument.

2. A young girl carrying books while looking at the members of her family. She used to live in the countryside but there are no schools in the countryside and she went to the city to study there; and she is now looking thoughtfully at her pregnant mother, [recalling] how she was pregnant with the girl and how she [ambiguous: probably the mother] was living in the countryside. It seems that she will succeed in her study and bring the family to the city where there is education and everything.

3. This is a child in the state of anger. Perhaps his father has scolded him, or he didn't buy anything for him on the holiday [`eid], and he is now very sad. He will grow up and work and forget this sadness and anger.

4. A man with his lover. They are arguing because of the misunderstanding. It seems that the man is a state of anger because the woman wants to marry him, and they are discussing this matter. The man refuses to marry her because he doesn't love her; and their end will be separation, because the beginning was not right.

6. A mother and her son. The son wants to talk frankly about a subject [reveal something], and the mother does not want to listen to it or doesn't care about it [is not interested]. The son is in a state of sadness and [is] frowning because he loves the girl that his mother refused to betroth to him, claiming that she does not suit him and is not the right person for him.

7. A young man with an old man, thinking about family life and its difficulties; and the young man concluded from this discussion and dialogue that married life irritates the person. That's why he is pessimistic about it.

8. The picture represents a story that took place during the war. The person who is lying on the bed is a soldier who was hit by a bullet in his arm. The young man standing is thinking that perhaps the person is his father, who was hit by a bullet. This son will miss his father a lot [feel the loss of the father strongly], but he will take courage and face the difficulties with firm strength and resolution.

12. A sick man who has some some psychopathology, and next to him is a psychotherapist curing him from this sickness. Perhaps this sick person got this sickness from a psychological shock: perhaps the origin of this sickness was a love that didn't succeed. The doctor will put him to sleep and cure him from this sickness, and he will face life and forget this love.

13. A woman with her husband, and she is in bed. The husband doesn't want to look at his wife, because she is in a state of nakedness and he thinks that someone was in the house while he was out or absent. Perhaps she has betrayed him with another person, and their end will be separation.

18. A story of an unconscious man who is carried by some hands. They are the hands of his relatives or friends or wife or father or the siblings [brothers]. This man has stumbled and become unconscious, and he is now in the hospital.


"The Attitude of the Examinee Towards the Self Through the Projective Pictures."

It is generally clear that the attitude of this examinee toward himself is a positive one, as that is shown in all the stories he presented and there are no signs of guilt feeling. That is clear in his optimistic outlook toward the future, as shown in cards 1, 2, 3, 8, and 12. The intellectual competence of the hero [is clear] from his intellectual responses, which are far from the level of imagination. Generally speaking he has enough intelligence and realistic thinking, which he displays. The heroine will work hard and save the family and change from poverty to prosperity (#2). The hero, after losing his father, will take courage and face all the difficulties and vanquish them with strength and firmness (#8). The examinee doesn't have any pathological fears, but his consistent feeling of frustration and deprivation appears clear, as cards 1, 2, 3, and 6 show, in spite of his consistent optimism in the future. The examinee didn't have the environmental circumstances to realize his desires. He wants to play on the instrument, but circumstances didn't allow him (#1). He also wants to go to school in the countryside near his family, but there are no schools in the countryside (#2). The hero needs a lot of things that his father didn't buy for him on the `aid (#3). He wants to marry a girl whom he loves, but his mother refuses and doesn't want to listen to him (#6). The examinee therefore feels the existence of stumbling-stones, but as a result of his feelings about himself he hopes to vanquish these obstacles.

Hence the hero, in his conception of himself, is competent but surrounded by obstacles.

"The Attitude of the Examinee Towards the Subject [of the Picture]"

The examinee generally shows a negative attitude toward the subject [of the picture], and that is apparent from his attitudes toward to following subjects:

(a) His attitude toward the father: the father doesn't play a big role in the life of the examinee (the non-representation of the father in his response to picture #7 which portrays the father doesn't justify [assuming] the father's non-importance for him).[3] Life is full of obstacles and problems, the means by which to realize goals are few, and other means and tools are needed. In addition to this, the examinee thinks of realizing these goals only through those close to him, i.e., he doesn't trust those who are not close to him, such as authority. So the father, who must play a basic role in the life of the examinee, is absent in all the important situations which require help and protection (#1, #2). The father seems as if he doesn't exist, and therefore he was assumed dead (#1, #8). He scarcely trusts him, and he can cope with being deprived of him because of [the father's] lack of competence (#8). This negative attitude toward the father was also emphasized by the sentence completion test.

(b) As for the relation with the mother, it is stronger; and the dependence on her is bigger, because the examinee feels protected and relaxed and peaceful (#6). He depends on her and takes her opinion about his marriage, although she herself frustrates him in regard to realizing this desire.

(c) As for the attitude of the examinee toward the woman, it is generally speaking a negative one; because he sees her in a degraded position which is represented in her deceiptfulness and causing problems (#4, #7).[4]

(d) As for the attitude of the examinee toward the family, it is also a generally negative one; taking into consideration that all the family life is a pattern of relations which he sees as something that comes to an end by separation or failure (#4, #7, #13).

(e) As for the attitude of the examinee toward classmates and companions and relatives, he assumes that peaceful relations can be realized only through those closest to him such as parents, siblings and friends, although that hope isn't in fact fulfilled (#8).

Case 2: 19, bac student, oldest of ten, parents both living, average economic level (pp. 132-134).

1. This is a picture of a child whose artist father has died; and the child wanted to be like his father, so he took his artistic legacy and he is no looking at his musical instrument. It seems that he lives in poverty, and his father didn't leave him enough inheritance to mention. The child is thinking whether the field of art will make his future secure: shall he take it or not? He will end taking this legacy like his father, and will work as a successful artist.

2. The events of this picture take place in the Soviet Union right after the revolution of 1917. In the picture appear the strong muscles of the father, who has very great ambition in spite of the small piece of land that he plows. The mother is expecting a baby. As for the girl standing, she is very ambitious in her study, and she is building big hopes for the future. She is thinking about the situation of her family and wants to save them from it. She is very ambitious, and perhaps she will become an engineer and work to increase the land and help her family.

3. This person has failed the baccalaureate exam. Perhaps he has worked harder than he should, and his failure has surprised him and he was shocked [that he failed]. It seems that he will not pass the next exam because he has a nervous collapse, and his strength falls apart. He might work instead of studying, and he will succeed in his work and recapture what he missed out on.

4. In the picture is a nice man who lives in an impoverished family situation. Perhaps he wants to go on a dangerous mission. If he succeeds in it he will get a large amount of money. As for the girl who is next to him, she loves him and she prevents him from doing this dangerous work; but his courage will make him take this mission, and he will succeed in it and save his situation from misery and will save the girl he loves also and marry her and establish a family.

6. The mother's son has joined the military on a dangerous mission, and she is looking forward to his return. Her son is ambitious and he wants to have wealth and prestige. As for the person standing, he is the eldest son in the family and he has heard about the departure of his brother and came to the mother asking her not to let his younger brother go and to sympathize with her. He is very angry about his brother; and at the same time he's offering his brother a job working with him, because he is a rich man. But his brother refuses this work and continues in his ambition and adventure.

7. A person retired from work who is working with this other who is waiting for the same fate; and now he [the young man] sees that he [the old one] is living in emptiness, and he is desparate and thinks about what he can do to help this retired person to get him out of this emptiness that he feels. He [the old man?] is asking his [young] friend to change the subject of conversation.

8. It seems that this young man is rich, and the rifle gives the impression that he is a hunter; and behind this young man is a painting on which the crime of murder is being committed, except that the features of the young man don't give the impression that he is concerned about what's going on in it.

12. This person is hypnotizing the sleeping one, who is an artist who had a psychological shock because he was an artist who loved a girl and wanted this girl to admire him; except that she has considered his work as a kind of nonsense, and his friend came to hypnotize him to know what's the matter with him and to sympathize with him in his shock. He will awake from his sleep and listen to the advice of his friend about his art, and he will progress in it without being concerned about the opinions of others.

13. This is a sleeping room, and this man is not sleeping although the position of the woman and the bed gives the impression of having sexual intercourse. It seems that the person standing was reading. The books are next to him, and he is not concerned about the woman on the bed. His concern is these books, and he sleeps in another bed, not this one.

18. A person who is chased by others. Perhaps he is from Latin America, because his face and features give that impression. He is one of the poets and he is chased because of his opposing ideas; and he is captured here and is trying to get away. Perhaps he is not afraid and he is trying to escape, but they will catch him and he will end in jail. Although he sees that his freedom can not be restrained by jail: his ideas willl spread in spite of all that. He has a strong personality, as his features show.

Case 3: 19, only child, average economic level, parents alive (pp. 135-137).

1. This is a picture of a child who must be a musician, because he is gifted in playing on the violin. He used to go to school and study, but he leaned more toward music; and that was by nature, and he is now reflecting on his future in this art. He had thought that he won't get it [the future] through study, but through music without doubt.

2. The picture represents a farmer farming his land, and there is a student who is doing a study about farming and it seems that she loves the land and farming it. She was born in the countryside and learned and studied and after obtaining her degrees she has not forgotten her past and her reality that she was experiencing. She came back to remember her childhood. The period of childhood is a very enjoyable period, and it is the best period. As for the house that appears in the distance in the picture, it was the house where she lived before. As for this farmer, he will succeed in his work because he is a hard worker and it seems that he loves the land and loves his work and this is a very useful thing.

3. The picture represents a beggar, and he is self-absorbed or he is a person who didn't learn and didn't study; and he was frightened by the view of this life, and he was dreaming since his childhood of arriving at a higher position but it [the actuality] was completely the opposite and now he is giving up on life. His outlook represents his defeat, and now he is thinking about suicide. It is possible that he will commit some crimes or will vagabond in the streets or will become a pauper until he arrives at jail at the end, and he will use drugs because he hasn't realized his goal.

4. The picture represents a dispute between a lover and his beloved one, and the man is stirred up and his beloved one is pleading with him not to be in this state. There is a suspicion in their relationship or a change in their dealings. Perhaps her love for him is living out its season, and it seems from [appearance of] the eyes of this woman that she is a trickster and a deceiver. As for the man, he is very serious: whispers and kisses don't concern him. It seems that he doesn't bow his head to women. The end between them is separation. The woman is headed for prostitution or bar-maiding, and the man will have a clean life; and this is seen in his manly bearing.

6. A dialogue between a mother and her son. The son wants to marry, because he reached the age of maturity. He appears in the picture in a state of anger and sadness. He came to get his mother's opinion about the girl of his dreams, because it's the habit of the mother to hold on to the old traditions; and he is looking for a girl of his intellectual level so their life will be on good terms. The mother wants to choose for him a girl of a lower position, i.e., from the commoners. Mothers always look for a girl of pure origins, because they believe that they are serious and pious; but the fact is that the woman whose characteristics are these, when married, she will be no more than a maid in the house. Woman is not only for bed: she is for a number of other things. Mother and son each have their own attitude. The mother holds on to her opinion, and the son holds to his as well; but he will remain unmarried until he satisfies his mother's wish because her ideas are contradictory. The mother is ignorant because she's from an era different from ours, and if the son marries he will be in conflict with his mother.

7. A young man next to his father. They are having a dialogue and discussion. The father wants to impose his opinions on the son, and the father is not educated. The son vacilates whether to listen to his father's opinions, even though he sees what his father does not see. His father did not go to school and did not know a lot of things.

8. The surgeons are operating on the father, because he is a hunter. Next to him is a rifle, and he does hard work in his hunting. He used to live in a lower position. Next to him is his son. He ponders because he became without a father. It seems from the picture that the son is all right. He is continuing his study in the city, and it seems that he is smiling at the future and he is optimist about it, except that the picture [also suggests] that the son is afraid because of his dependence on his father.

12. A child dreaming about a person who wants to challenge and slap him. I think that this child had a psychological complex since his childhood, or he lost his parents. The child grew up in a society which doen't think about him, and it seems from the picture that the child feels confused or perhaps he loves self-absorption and seclusion. He believes that he has no role in life without his parents, and he lives among a family who are alien to him. Perhaps his fate in the future will be very good and his life happy, because as it is said poverty doesn't prevent [one from] knowledge and work. But he always lives with a psychological complex because he spent his childhood in poverty and misery and deprivation.

13. The person standing was teasing the girl lying on the bed, and after that love has passed between them the person felt regret because the ugly desire is over and the person stood in a state of anger; and it seems that he is asking for the books which appeared in the picture, and he regretted because he had performed this action while still a student. The person came to his senses now and awoke from his sleep and abandoned this love and its kind because he is still a student.

18. In the picture we see a man carried by hands, because he dispaired of a life in which he didn't get any happiness because he didn't learn what would benefit him in building his life. There is no life without study and knowledge.

Case 4: 19, mother divorced, father (butcher) remarried, twelve siblings (pp. 138-140).

1. This child was living with his family, and they were poor. His father died and didn't leave anything for him to face life except the instrument. He was from a lower class; that's why he didn't care about his son. That's why the child is looking at his inheritance, which is worthless. It won't provide him with clothing and livelihood. Perhaps he will find some generous person or relative; or he will remain among the vagabonds.[5]

2. The girl is walking toward the landscape, meadows and fields. This picture shows that women don't do anything: men are the ones who do everything. One of the women in the picture is leaning against the tree, and the other is carrying a book to read it.[6]

3. A girl is homeless. Or she was thrown out of the house and she couldn't find anything to do, and she didn't have anyone to support her. This is why she is sleeping in the street and enduring everything. She was thrown out because she did something bad, such as illicit sex. She regrets it now because she's lost. Perhaps she will find a little money by working for some people, or she will remain homeless.[7]

4. [This is] a man who loved a girl and had the intention to marry her; but he heard something about her. She loves another person, that's why he deserted her. She came now to visit him, but he didn't accept her visit, and she is swearing to him that she didn't do anything bad and that what was said about her is not true. Life is full of enviers, and he should be sure about the truth before deserting her. He did harm to himself and he is going to do harm to her too; and he will lose the future that he thought about.[8]

6. A man who was living with his family, and then went to another country, where he studied and became a man who forgot his family and friends and continued living in that country. He used to do a lot of illicit sex and didn't care about the future. He remained in this state until he was imprisoned because he stole some money. All his property was confiscated, and he returned to his native country and found that his father had died; and his father's estate was lost and his mother was living in loss and poverty. He is now thinking about a suitable solution, and he is looking for money to live on. He will open his father's shop, which has been closed since his death; thus he will live and escape from loss. Otherwise other people won't care about him, especially since he had been in prison and people consider him a thief.

7. The father is advising his son; and the father had a long experience in life and wants to get his son to a happy future and a good reputation and morals... The son is saying the complete opposite of what his father advises, because the mentality of the father is a traditional one, holding on to the traditions and habits. The son wants to be open to the West and to the new. And the father wants to get rid of these traditions and live in another atmosphere.

8. A child whose father was inducted into the military. His son is looking forward to seeing him because [the father] was gone eight years, and now the child is imagining that his father died or that something bad happened to him. Then one day he heard that his father was wounded in the stomach and that the doctors operated on him to save his life. Now he is imagining that his father is undergoing this operation by two physicians; and if this operation is successful he will feel happy. Otherwise he will lose his father. If the son loses his father, as the situation suggests, he will be lost. The mother doesn't have any wealth, and the government doesn't care about him and doesn't give him his father's pension, and he can't face the problems of life and its struggle.

12. A child with bad luck in study and in all his hopes, the result of which was pessimism. He consulted his friends about his bad luck; and they advised him- - especially the ignorant ones- - that what had happened to him is the result of magic, which caused him catastrophes and failure in study and other work. He went to see a magician to be sure about this and to get rid of it, but the magician asked for a lot of money to save him from the bad luck. He gave him some herbs, but this didn't help and he was forced at the end to get away from the magician. He will search and organize, and advance, because there is no magic and stuff: the base is the organization.

13. A man and his wife were looking at one of the houses and the wife got sick. He didn't take her to the hospital, he took her to the fqih and the magician whom he blindly trusted. Days passed, and the danger of the sickness increased, and people advised him to take her to the doctor but he didn't care and refused. The result was that his wife died. The husband regretted what he had done by not visiting the doctor, and the cause of all this is the ignorance and the lack of awareness and culture.

18. A man who was a musician, and he was famous for his generosity, and he spent money on his friends and bad companions whom he accompanied, but at the end he lost his wealth and he was obliged to abandon music and to become a vagabond and wanderer. His friends didn't care about him. They deserted him because he was not good in choosing friends who will understand him well and will help each other, and now he is living as a vagabond and became crazy.

Commentary: "The Attitude of the Examinee Towards the Self Through the Projective Pictures."

It appears through the different stories that the hero is vacillating between failure and success, and between fear of the future and trust in it. Perhaps the difficult social life that the examinee lives has left its mark clearly on his different responses to most of the cards (he reported in the social data that he had difficulties in his studies because his father divorced his mother and married another woman and he is living with his mother in a village far away from Casablanca. He is forced to go repeatedly to his own mother and return to the city where he studies, and he is living with his brother [in Casa]. For these reasons we find that the hero is poor and lives under serious deprivation, for he doesn't own anything except the violin which will do him no good and won't solve his problems: "It is a useless inheritance, which will not provide clothing and livelihood" (#1). Perhaps we may not say that the attitude of the examinee is a completely negative one, since he shows optimism and ability in some responses: "He will search and organize and advance after that" (#12). We will assume, however, that the weakness of the ego of the examinee is basically a result of obstacles in the environment, which is full of problems which the fathers don't help to vanquish. The father is busy with his new wife, and the mother doesn't have the means to support her son, and the government doesn't give any assistance: "If the son loses his father (as the case is) he will be lost. The mother doesn't own wealth, and the government doesn't care about him and give him a pension; and he can't face the struggle of life" (#8). Some of the cards reflect the faith of the examinee in science as a tool of treatment and curing, and a tool for progress as an alternative to belief in magic and bad omen, in which a lot of ignorant individuals in the society believe (#12, #13). We also find in most of the stories that the examinee depends on others because of the absence of the parents and the lack of necessities of life;[9] and because the parents didn't play their basic role in the life of the examinee (#1, #3, #6).

The attitude of the examinee towards the subject [of the picture] is a negative one, as it appears through his relations with most members of the environment.

(a) As for his relation with the father, the examinee sees his father as a person holding to the old traditons, while he wants to be open to the new and to get rid of the traditions (#7) and the examinee doesn't hide his true feeling toward the father. This feeling is repeated in most of the other cards because of the absence of the influence of the father on his son'e life (since he doen't live with him)- - so the father is dead in the unconscious of the examinee, because of the lack of influence on the life of the son and his absence in situations which require his presence (#1, #6, #8).

(b) As for the attitude of the examinee toward the mother, it occuppies only a small place in the cards which indicate the relation of the hero to the mother; and his concern about his mother is the same as his concern about himself, since they live in the same situation (#6).

(c) As for the attitude of the examinee toward woman, it is generally a negative one. He sees her as as an idle creature who doesn't work (#2), and the girl is immoral and lives in loss; and she will remain vagabond, because of her behavior. She will depend on others (#3). His negative attitude toward woman is also apparent in card #4, taking into consideration that his relation with her is subjected to suspicion and dishonesty.

(d) The examinee has a positive attitude toward nice individuals in the society who help him because of his poverty and that of his family, and because his parents live far away from him. That's why the dependence on friends is reflected in most of the responses (#1, #3, #6); and the process of selecting friends became a very important one for him, on which his success in life depends (#18), since there is no sign of the parents' influence. This positive attitude of the examinee toward friends is emphasized in the results of the SCT.

Case 5: 19, parents alive, oldest of seven children, father unemployed (pp. 141-143)[10]

1. A child who has the desire to play on this instrument; but he finds it difficult to satisfy this need, either for the lack of complete knowledge in music or because he is young. He is thinking a lot about this problem and hopes to have the opportunity to study music.

2. A young girl revolting against the rural environment in which she lives, trying to abandon it through study and learning and improving her cultural level] so that she can move from village life as a shepherdess or helper in rural work to be an employee or teacher with the ambition of working in the city. Perhaps she will succeed, with will and strong resolution. In the picture there is [also] the shepardess absorbed in her environment; and she can improve her position because of oppressing circumstances, such as the chronological age.

3. A child experiencing a crisis between his parents; it is a problem of conflict between his parents, with other problems such as lack of desire to learn. That's why he took to laziness, sleep, and idleness as a means to escape reality; and this matter will lead him to a negative result, and it will increase his feeling that he is useless because he does not find someone to strengthen his feeling of self-confidence and personality. The parents don't take charge of this issue because of the conflict between them, and his end will be loss.

4. A man experiencing a problem in his married life. He didn't succeed in married life; he didn't find in the wife the woman that he had dreamed about. He increasingly stays away from his house. The wife now faces his turning away from her, and she is trying to attract him back to her and to understand the truth of the matter, but she doesn't succeed. The opinions of the husband and the wife differ about the concept of married life and the desire of the wife straightens the freedom of the husband.

6. A man and his mother. The mother is worried about her son's behavior. The behavior of her son is abnormal. It hurts the honor of the family. He accompanies friends of bad reputation. The son will feel guilty and will ask the mother's forgiveness, and she will grant that.

7. A young man in front of a picture of an interesting personality (the artist). This young man in his youth had the ambition to arrive at the position of the artist; but for some reason he couldn't fulfill his ambition. In front of this picture he thinks for a long time about the matter; and he might achieve this position [of artist], if he could get rid of the feeling he has and continue with the same hard work that he had during his youth.

8. This young man experienced circumstances of war during his childhood, and saw with his own eyes savage action that the soldiers used in treating prisoners of war.

12. A young man sleeping in front of embarrassing circumstances. He gave false testimony against the person standing in front of him, which led to his imprisonment and his death in the prison. As the days went by he has had pangs of conscience; and he has hysterical attacks, such as perceiving the ghost during the night of the person who died in prison coming to take revenge on him. During the war an enemy soldier was killed, and the young man was going to be accused if he had told the truth and did not accuse the innocent person who was there with him.

18. An ambitious writer with liberal ideas wants to express his feelings and ideas and opinions, but there are hands- - which represent the society which reduces his resolution and ties his freedom; among which are ignorance,lack of awareness, and the oppressiveness of the government. He wants to fight social injustice, and he feels pained about the ignorance on the part of members of the society. He must impose his ideas if they are right ones, either he or someone else who has the same attitude.

Case 6: 20, parents alive, father a worker, ten sibs. S had a strong love shock because of his failure in a relationship with a girl.

1. A child thinking deeply about a musical instrument. It seems that he is dreaming to become a musician who plays this instrument that he loves. He wants to occupy his leisure time playing it. Perhaps he lost his mother, and he wants to get into singing to forget his sadness. He is trying to reveal his sadness to this musical instrument. He lost his mother while he was still a small child, and now that he has grown he notices that the other children go with their mother to the park to play while he feels that he lives alone without a mother. Perhaps his father has married another woman; and she doesn't love him, and only loves her children. Perhaps in the future he will become a player and a great man; and he understands what motherhood means, so when he has children he will treat his wife well, because she is the mother of his children.

2. This picture represents the countryside: a simple family, a father who is a farmer, a mother and a daughter. It seems that this girl wears the clothes that the city girls wear. She is holding a book, and the countryside girls don't read. She is gazing at the landscape in front of her. Perhaps the woman is pregnant. She seems sad; perhaps she is suffering from seeing her husband struggling [at work]. The husband and the wife will produce children and will take care of the land and will use new machines, and the girl who is gazing at them will return to the city to write the story of life in the countryside: its bads and goods.

3. The picture represents an ambiguous situation. Perhaps she is a girl who fell in love with a person for whom she had an eternal love, and she was thinking that he will feel the same for her. She had a great trust in him; and she gave him the dearest thing she has, herself. She was satisfying all his desires. A period passed in her love and one day she heard that he is married, and she reacted [emotionally] and she couldn't take this shock; and there was no hope for her, and she took refuge in suicide, and she is now in a room and she shot herself.

4. A husband and a wife. The husband is in a state of worry. The wife is trying to calm him. Perhaps he has another wife, and her picture appears in the room. The picture hanging represents what's in his imagination now. It seems that he doesn't love his wife, and the other one is the one who occupied his imagination. The wife is in a calm state; she is serious and beautiful. I don't know the cause for the husband abandoning her and going to the bosom of the other wife. The end of it is divorce and separation.

6. The son and his mother. The mother is in a state of anger with her son. A bourgeois family. The son loved a poor girl. He introduced her to his mother, and his mother refused that he marry her; and he is pleading with his mother to agree, and the mother will give in at the end because love is stronger than anything.

7. Two men, one of them old and the other young. This young man has a family problem with his wife: he discovered that she has a love affair, and betrayal is the worst thing. He has this friend, even though he is older; he considers him as his father. He came to him and told him this story because of his experience, and the old man began to suggest solutions. It seems that the old man is intelligent and serious; and the solution is to divorce his wife, even though the old man loves his wife.

8. The picture represents a handsome and beautiful young man. His father died, and he imagines a scene whose content is that two physicians are operating, except that in reality they wear the uniform of the doctors. In the mind of this child, he hates them because they caused the death of his father. This child lives in a bourgeois family, and his goal in life is to become a doctor who gives life and curing to people. Doctors are criminals in the view of this child, because their only concern is to make money.

12. The picture represents a sleeping girl, and in front of her is a man who is hypnotizing her to analyse her psyche]. Perhaps this person doesn't have luck in love, and she had a shock in her life. She doesn't know what to do to face this life, and she presented herself to a psychologist to orient her.

18. A man who was having some intoxicating drinks in a nightclub, until he got very drunk. He wanted to return to his house, but he couldn't and he was brought to his house and the hands were holding him. Perhaps he is a father who doesn't value his responsibility, and the owners of the bar threw him out after he spent all his money.

Case 7: 18.5, living parents, average economic level, examinee is oldest of [??] siblings.

1. A child. In front of him is a violin. It seems that he doesn't know how to play it; and he is imagining how he can get to know it; because he admires this musical instrument and he hopes to play it well. It seems that he will be a super player at the end, because he got into this business from the time he was small.

2. The picture represents a farmer who seems to find his work hard. He has taken off [some of] his clothes. As for the girl, she looking thoughtfully at this work, and she thinks that the work of the farmer is traditional; and she hoped that he would have changed his traditional style, which the farmer cannot do. As for the woman leaning on the tree, she is pregnant and she is out of this world: she is deeply thinking about what's happening to the farmer while he is producing goods with which he will change his position in life.

3. This picture might be of a sad girl who is suffering. It seems from her appearance that she is tired of life; and she went to this place to cry over her luck, for she was experiencing social or psychological problems. Problems such as these have a great effect on man, and these problems might be divorce or marriage.

4. A woman and a man. It seems that there is something worng with the man, or he thinks about a shock that he has undergone because of a problem between him and someone else. It seems that the girl is his sister, and she wants to help him but he doesn't want to reveal his secret to her; and she is pleading with him to accept her help. Perhaps he has heard about her things which he doesn't like, and perhaps if he takes what he has heard and thought as the truth he will separate from his sister; but if he listens to what she had said and believed it and consulted his reason they will not be separated from each other.

6. A woman and her son. It seems that the son is in a state of anger and nervousness thinking about problems he is living with. His mother asked him to perform a task. At the end he will either do what his mother asked him to do; or he will not listen to her, and he will not go if he didn't like [to do] it.

7. The father is advising his son about the path he might follow in life, but the son didn't like the talk of this father. That appears in his expressions. If the father's opinion was a right one the son will perhaps take it and succeed; but if it was the opposite he will not succeed in life.

8. A man lying on the bed, and another holding a scissor or a knife. Perhaps he is operating on him. In the picture also appears a rifle, because the person was hit by a bullet and the others are taking out the bullet that hit him during hunting. As for the young man, he is thinking about the matter and whether this person will die; because he is his father, on whom he depends, and he will suffer if he remains alone without a father.

12. A young man sleeping on the bed. He is sick with fever, and next to him is the father. Perhaps he is his father. This one wants to put the hand on the forehead of his son to feel his pulse and his temperature.

13. A woman and a man who is worried, because he has performed a sexual act with her; and he is feeling sorry for doing so, because he was not supposed to do so because she is not an honorable person and he is regretting that he did this.

18. A man in a state of limpness; and there is another person holding him from behind, pulling him toward him; but the man is completely exhausted after he had performing a tiring work.

Case 8: 19, living with brother far from country family, bac class (pp. 150-152).

1. A child and a guitar in front of him. He is thinking about it, and he hopes that he has learned to play it; and he is inquiring about the parts of this guitar, and he is trying to play it and know its construction and why it is in this particular shape. The child is thinking about this guitar. He will surely play it; perhaps this guitar will get him to his desired aim and he will become a skillful player.

2. A school girl looking thoughtfully at the picture in front of her, which is a picture of another woman. And behind her is a man pulling a cart or driving it. As for the girl who is carrying the books, she is gazing at the view of the other woman and her feeling about her. The girl looks at the woman with sadness because her appearance affected her psyche.

3. This picture represents the view of a woman suffering. Perhaps she fell out of bed, or she had a sickness, or an acute crisis.

4. A man and a woman. It seems that the man is in a state of anger because of what has happened to him, and the woman is trying to calm him down. There is an argument or dispute between them because of the difference of their viewpoints. The picture shows that the man is very nervous; and the woman is calm and trying to reduce his temper so he won't have something like a violent psychological shock, or commit a crime. The man is right, because he was in a struggle with another man because he mistreated him or told him good news which turned out to be false, and if the man had kept silence people would think the news was true.

6. The picture represents a man and a woman. It appears through the expressions on their faces that they are in a state of anger. The man is more angry than the woman. There is a misunderstanding between him and his wife. The woman is speaking and the man is listening to her, and he wants to answer back more violently; and the woman wants to explain to him that he was wrong, and he doesn't want to accept that. He became angry. Perhaps this man made a mistake where he shouldn't have, by following her thinking; so he wouldn't diverge from what is usual.

7. Two men are talking about an important matter. It seems that one of them is older than the other. The disagreement between them is simple, and that is because of the lack of [the appearance of] anger. One is listening thoughtfully to the other. It's possible to arrive an an understanding between them. The older man is the one who got to speak. Their speech is about a matter concerning commerce or getting to a certain goal or the mistakes he [ambiguous] had made which the other would not have made.

8. A surgeon holding scissors performing an operation. Perhaps the man on whom the operation is being performed was hit by a bullet. There is another person wearing dark clothes, and he is thinking about the causes of that accident and its result. This accident happened as a result of a person attacking another or a theft. That's why the thief was forced to use bullets. The sleeping person is the thief. The person standing is not disturbed, and his clothes are elegant. He is thinking about the result of the matter.

12. A sleeping woman in a dreaming state. She is imagining a person from the countryside resembling the person standing. He is not beautiful; and perhaps there is a dishonorable relation between them, or an operation or an oppression. That's why he is having an effect on her psyche. [Sentence unclearly printed.] He is controlling her and she cannot face him, and she is dreaming about him. Perhaps he is stronger than her and has an authority over her, or he stands in her way as an obstacle keeping her from realizing her desires.

13. A sleeping woman. Perhaps there is a conflict [collision?] between her and the other person in the picture, or she is dreaming. The man is in a state of anger, and he is wearing very good clothes. It seems that the person has some grey hair. Perhaps the woman is trying to convince her husband or this person, and she wants to explain to him that she is a good woman to be a wife; and she has all the characteristics for that.

18. A man who is a beggar living in a bad state, and he didn't find someone to help him and he fell on the ground. Some people came to carry him to his house. This beggar is thinking about his situation, and he is trying to work if he has the ability to do so, so he won't remain in this situation.

[1]saykolojiyat al-murahiq: dirasa maydaniya lil-ittijahat an-nafsiya al-ijtima`iya lil-murahiq al-maghribi. kulliyat `ulum at-tarbiya, jamiyat muhamad al-xamis. Published by manshurat majallat ad-dirasat an-nafsiya wa-terbawiya, Rabat. Dr. Ouzzi is Redacteur en chef of the Moroccan journal Etudes Psychologiques & Pedagogiques, from the same publisher. This book is developed from a Moroccan doctoral thesis. Translated by Mohamed Najmi, with the assistance of Douglas A. Davis. All rights reserved. Do not reproduce any portion of this material by any means without permission.

[2]The text is classical, but Najmi thinks the language sounds like what students at this level would produce. Questions: Were Ss tested in groups or individually? Were Ss prompted to provide full treatment of Murray et al. prompts? Transliteration is given in brackets for problemmatic or esp. interesting words, using standard scheme for literary (rather than colloquial) Arabic.

[3]The Arabic here is almost impossible to translate into smooth English, and there may be printing/punctuation errors as well (including a non-closed parenthesis).

[4]I don't see these themes in those stories. Wouldn't #13 be a better illustaration?

[5]5 December, 1987: DD & Gary Gregg: Prime themes seem to be abandonment by father, need for material support (violin's artistic use denied). Outcome risk is vagabondage.

[6]Note absence of male figure except implied in "men do everything," Attention's first to girl, then prob. to man. {Conflict of own vs. father's sexuality?} Is S blurting feelings about women/denying implicit sexual triangle, then back-peddaling to descriptive treatment of the two females? Sibling rivalry {where is S in birth order/sibs from mother's 2nd marriage?}

[7]Vagabondage/illicit sex {sex press of previous card coming through here?}. Is she abandoned or tossed out? Outcome is tension betw honest work or homelessness. Patronage theme repeated.

[8]Female's sexuality is implicit (she's victim of slander), S seems to identify with girl's plight.

[9]The pronouns don't agree here, and we take the most plausible meaning.

[10]Note repeated awkward/pompous usages; ask O. re educational level, language skill, absence of story 13.